Important Things Pharmacists Should Know About COVID-19 Vaccines
Matt Hancock, the health secretary, has said that a vaccine may be available by late 2020, or early 2021. However, before anyone can predict when we might have a useable vaccine against COVID-19, efficacy results from phase III trials — which are currently in progress — are needed. And, if positive, these need to be presented to the appropriate regulatory authority to authorise emergency use. These informative topics can be easily highlighted in an essay format by an expert essay writer.
Developers of several vaccines, including those in the UK portfolio, are hoping to achieve regulatory approval in early to mid-2021. In early October 2020, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) said it was starting a rolling review to speed up the assessment of two vaccines for COVID-19 — the ChAdOx1 vaccine being developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca, and the BNT162b2 vaccine being developed by BioNTech and Pfizer. In mid-November 2020, the EMA announced that it has also started a rolling review of Moderna’s mRNA-1273 vaccine.
At a House of Commons Science and Technology Committee and Health and Social Care Committee joint meeting held on 4 November 2020, Kate Bingham, chair of the UK vaccine taskforce, said that the Oxford/AstraZeneca adenoviral vector vaccine and the BioNTech/Pfizer mRNA vaccine were “the two vaccines which have the possibility of being ready before the end of the year”.
However, once a vaccine is approved, manufacturers then need to ensure there is enough of it in the freezer, ready to go, as well as the manpower and facilities to deliver it fairly to billions of people across the world.
The World Health Organization says it does not expect widespread dissemination of a COVID-19 vaccine until the middle of 2021 at the earliest.
Calculations by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations show that, even if manufacturing capacity doubled, as planned, over the next 12 months, less than half the world’s population could be protected against COVID-19 by the end of 2022. After that much iinformation an essay writing service can easily draft an essay which provide information about pharmacy.
1. There are currently more than 300 COVID-19 vaccine candidates
However, the majority of these are at the pre-clinical phase of development, with around 50 in clinical trials.
Only phase III trials can determine if the vaccine protects against COVID-19. Many phase III vaccine studies fail because the dose chosen does not best balance safety and efficacy, and because they are large enough to reveal evidence of relatively rare side effects that might be missed in earlier, smaller-scale studies.
If there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate the safety, quality and efficacy of a vaccine against COVID-19, a temporary authorisation for the supply of the vaccine could be given by the UK’s licensing authority, under regulation 174 of the Human Medicines Regulations, before the vaccine is officially licensed. The government is currently ensuring the right legislative measures are in place to deal with that scenario.
Based on previous vaccine development, those at the pre-clinical stage have roughly a 7% chance of succeeding, while those that make it to clinical trials have about a 20% chance of succeeding. After getting these information an expert writers can easily write my essay on that important topic of covid-19.
2. Some COVID-19 vaccines have already been approved for use, but not in the UK
Three vaccines, two adenoviral vector vaccines and a protein-based vaccine, have been given early or limited approval without waiting for the results of phase III trials.
Sputnik V — a combination of two adenoviruses, Ad5 and Ad26, formerly known as Gam-COVID-Vac — which is being developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute in Moscow, Russia, was approved by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation on 11 August 2020.
Experts have raised considerable concerns about the vaccine’s safety and efficacy, given it has not yet entered phase III clinical trials. However, Russia has said the approval is a “conditional registration certificate”, which would depend on results from phase III trials.
Another vaccine developed by the Chinese company CanSino Biologics, which is based on the adenovirus Ad5, was approved by the Chinese military in June 2020 for a year as “a specially needed drug”. In August 2020, the company announced that it plans to start phase III trials of its vaccine in Russia. After getting that useful content, now an online essay writer can highlight that topic in an essay format.
On 14 October 2020, Russia registered its second COVID-19 vaccine. Developed by the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology, in Russia, the EpiVacCorona vaccine completed its early stage human trials in September 2020 and phase III trials are planned to start in November or December 2020.
3. The UK has pre-ordered the most COVID-19 vaccines per capita in the world, with enough for five doses per person
The UK is hedging its bets, with pre-orders for 357 million doses of different vaccines from seven manufacturers. The portfolio includes two adenoviral vector vaccines (Oxford/AstraZeneca and Janssen), two mRNA vaccines (BioNTech/Pfizer and Moderna), an inactivated whole virus vaccine (Valneva), and two protein adjuvant vaccines (GSK/Sanofi, Novavax). Along with these useful information an essay typer can write my essay for me now to highlight that content in an essay format. The government has also provided £41m in funding to support trials of another RNA vaccine being developed by Imperial College London.